By Maido Saarlas
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23) The equivalent parasite area is often used to classify different aircraft and their component drags, and it leads to a logical way to a buildup of aircraft zero lift drag. For some tabulated data see Appendix C. Since a graphical performance representation is often a convenient means toward solutions, the number of apparent parameters can be reduced by suppressing the altitude variation by introducing again the equivalent air speed from Eq. 24) where Aϭ 1 C S 2 0 D0 Bϭ 2kn2W 2 0S and A and B depend on geometry, weight, and g-loading of the aircraft.
50 and using Eq. 52) where To is the sea-level engine thrust and Em is given by Eq. 31. It is seen that the altitude for Vmax increases as the thrust level is increased. To round off the approximate method, a second approach to the velocity solution is to set the thrust available equal to thrust required, Ta ϭ Tr ϭ D, by use of Eq. 53) and to solve for the velocity V. 54) where the positive sign is used for maximum velocity and negative sign for minimum velocity. It should be noted that Ta represents any available thrust (at a given throttle setting) at an altitude and is assumed to be independent of velocity in Eqs.
One way to improve accuracy for high speed or steep climb problems has been to establish a correction to the classical equation by rewriting Eq. 3) as dh Pa Ϫ DV ϭ dt W 1 . 2 STALLING SPEED 19 The term in square brackets is then evaluated as a kinetic energy correction factor to the fundamental equation. For low speeds, the correction factor is small, as expected, but can exceed 2 for high speeds. As a result, the rate of climb dh/dt predicted by the classical formula may be actually halved. Among many other parameters, the correction depends on the climb technique and the powerplant characteristics.
Aircraft performance by Maido Saarlas