Download e-book for kindle: Aerodynamics of Low Reynolds Number Flyers by Wei Shyy, Yongsheng Lian, Jian Tang, Dragos Viieru, Hao Liu

By Wei Shyy, Yongsheng Lian, Jian Tang, Dragos Viieru, Hao Liu

ISBN-10: 0521882788

ISBN-13: 9780521882781

Low Reynolds quantity aerodynamics is necessary to a few ordinary and man-made flyers. Birds, bats, and bugs were of curiosity to biologists for years, and energetic research within the aerospace engineering neighborhood, stimulated via curiosity in micro air automobiles (MAVs), has been expanding swiftly. the first concentration of this publication is the aerodynamics linked to fastened and flapping wings. The publication reflect on either organic flyers and MAVs, together with a precis of the scaling laws-which relate the aerodynamics and flight features to a flyer's sizing at the foundation of straightforward geometric and dynamics analyses, structural flexibility, laminar-turbulent transition, airfoil shapes, and unsteady flapping wing aerodynamics. The interaction among flapping kinematics and key dimensionless parameters corresponding to the Reynolds quantity, Strouhal quantity, and lowered frequency is highlighted. some of the unsteady carry enhancement mechanisms also are addressed, together with modern vortex, speedy pitch-up and rotational flow, wake seize, and clap-and-fling.

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Pennycuick (1990) identified several physical variables that affect the wing-beat frequency: b, wingspan (m), S, wing area (m2 ), I, wing moment of inertia (kg m2 ) ∼ mb 2 , ␳ , air density (kg/m3 ). 08 (m1/3 g 1/2 b−1 S−1/4 ␳ 1/3 ). 20) In an updated study Pennycuick (1996) added another 15 species and made a more detailed analysis, leading to the following expression: f = m3/8 g 1/2 b−23/24 S−1/3 ␳ 3/8 . 21) can be used to predict the wing-beat frequency of species whose mass, wingspan, and wing area are known.

Wingspan during glides in magpies does not vary with flight speed, but the percentage of bounding among nonflapping intervals increases with speed from 10 to 14 m/s. The use of nonflapping wing postures seems to be related to the gaits used during flapping and to the AR of the wings. 2 Scaling When studying natural flyers, it is insightful to assess the effects of different parameters, such as wing area and wingspan, on the flight characteristics, based on dimensional analysis (Lighthill, 1977; Norberg, 1990; Pennycuick, 1992; SchmidtNielsen, 1984).

Pennycuick (1990) identified several physical variables that affect the wing-beat frequency: b, wingspan (m), S, wing area (m2 ), I, wing moment of inertia (kg m2 ) ∼ mb 2 , ␳ , air density (kg/m3 ). 08 (m1/3 g 1/2 b−1 S−1/4 ␳ 1/3 ). 20) In an updated study Pennycuick (1996) added another 15 species and made a more detailed analysis, leading to the following expression: f = m3/8 g 1/2 b−23/24 S−1/3 ␳ 3/8 . 21) can be used to predict the wing-beat frequency of species whose mass, wingspan, and wing area are known.

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Aerodynamics of Low Reynolds Number Flyers by Wei Shyy, Yongsheng Lian, Jian Tang, Dragos Viieru, Hao Liu


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