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By Mohler F.L.

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Chem. Soc, 38 (1916) 2221. I. Langmuir, /. Am, Chem. Soc, 40 (1918) 1361. C. Kemball, E. K. Rideal, and E. A. Guggenheim, Trans. Faraday Soc, 44 (1948) 948. E. J. Franses, F. A. Siddiqui, D. J. -H. -H. L. Wang, Langmuir, (1995) 3177. G. D. Halsey and H. S. Taylor, J. Chem. , 15 (1947) 624. M. Volmer, Ann. Phys. , 115 (1925) 253. F. G. Helfferich, Chem. Eng. Educ, 26 (1992) 23 and 51. R. H. Fowler, Proc. Cambridge Phil. Soc, 31 (1935) 260. S. Brunauer, P. H. Emmett, and E. Teller, J. Am. Chem. Soc, 60 (1938) 309.

2. Nonideality Rate equations in terms of concentrations and with presumably concentrationindependent rate coefficients, as used in this book, are idealizations. In the real world, matters are more complex. For example, a change in polarity of the medium with progressing conversion may cause a variation of rate coefficients. Such effects are hard to predict and, as a rule, not overly serious. For practical purposes they can often be disregarded. Where this is not so, an experimental determination of the composition dependence of the coefficients is usually the best way to proceed.

We humans tend to slow down when it gets hot, reactions speed up. At least this is true in general for elementary steps. With increase in temperature, bond vibrations in molecules become stronger and collisions occur more often and with greater vigor, increasing the probability of molecules to react. As a rule, the rates of single-step reactions therefore increase with increasing temperature. In the great majority of cases this is also true for rates of multistep reactions, but not without exceptions: The overall rate may decrease with increasing temperature if the rates of reverse steps increase more sharply with temperature than those of forward steps.

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A Photo-Ionization Experiment with Hydrogen by Mohler F.L.

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