Download e-book for kindle: A manual of radioactivity, by Georg von Hevesy

By Georg von Hevesy

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Seattrring of j3 -Rays aft(r passing through Aluminium Foil. Chap. Ill, 3 RANGE OF THE 0-RAYS. /3-RAY SPECTRA 41 and the density of the absorbing material is practically independent of the material. The stopping power of an atom is roughly proportional to the atomic number, but more accurate investigation reveals a periodicity of the stopping power. -rays can also be shown by cloud photographs. Thus the j8-rays from RaD comprise two strong j3-ray groups having velocities correand 39 per cent, of the velocity of light, and having energies corresponding to 3 1 ,000 and 43,000 volts respectively.

The range of H-rays (see p. 67) accelerated in the forward direction by the a-rays from ThC' is equal to 40 cm. It may be mentioned in this connexion that the range of H-rays is just as large as that of a-rays of the same velocity. Moreover, the stopping power is the same for both. 3. The lonization produced by a-Rays In consequence of its large velocity, an a-particle possesses at the beginning of its path a very considerable kinetic energy amounting to about 10" 5 ergs, or roughly 10 11 times the value of the thermal energy of a helium atom at room temperature.

If extrapolate for thicknesses which would correspond to the whole range in air, the above determined air equivalent does not always give the correct range of the a-rays in the substance concerned. This sq. , we THE a-RAYS 24 Chap. II, 2 due to the fact that air equivalents themselves are dependent on the velocity of the rays, and hence one and the same sheet, introduced at is different points of the trajectory, shortens the range in air by different amounts. In the investigation of the behaviour of different media with respect to the same a-rays we often take account of the 'stopping power', instead of the range or the air equivalent.

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A manual of radioactivity, by Georg von Hevesy


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