By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
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Extra info for A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures: With Nuclear Data for Some Biomedically Important Radionuclides
When the time constant is increased, the voltage rises as shown in the upper curve, for RC = a,of Figure 6. Here, a fast rise (to point a) a t the beginning of the pulse, due to the rapidly moving electrons, is followed by a slower increase (to point b ) due to the movement of the positive ions. When it is feasible to use a gas that allows fast electron collection, a differentiating time constant of only a few microseconds is usually chosen to prevent pulse pile-up at high counting rates. If the differentiating time constant is longer than the time for electron collection but much shorter than for collection of the positive ions, the pulse shape is determined by the movement of the electrons.
6. Voltage pulse on collecting electrode of pulse ionization chamber. ) 24 1 2. PHYSICS OF SOME RADIATION DETECTORS charge in the electron-collecting electrode and reduce the pulse amplitude, the magnitude of this charge depending on the location of the initial ionization. Therefore, in a parallel-plate chamber, the pulse amplitude will depend on where the ionizing particle traversed the chamber. , Frisch grid chamber) to screen the collecting electrode from the positive ions. The use of a pulse ionization chamber is limited at low particle energies by the inherent noise of the associated amplifier.
Liquid scintillators are normally composed of one or more fluorescent solutes in an organic solvent. In the preparation of the sample for liquid-scintillation counting, the radioactive material is introduced into, and thoroughly mixed with, the liquid scintillator. It is generally accepted that radiation energy is expended in the ionization and excitation of the solvent. This energy is subsequently transferred to the solute (or fluor) and is re-emitted as photons in the violet and ultraviolet. These photons, having an average wavelength characteristic of the solute, can then be detected at the photocathode of one or more phototubes, although in the general application of the method a "wavelength shifter" may also be used to produce an output pulse of photons having wavelengths compatible with the optimum sensitivity of the photocathode.
A Handbook of Radioactivity Measurements Procedures: With Nuclear Data for Some Biomedically Important Radionuclides by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements